What Does it Mean to be Culturally Responsive?
In today's diverse world, professionals in the field of behaviour analysis must be culturally responsive. Cultural responsiveness refers to understanding and respecting individuals' unique cultural backgrounds and experiences. It involves acknowledging and valuing the diversity that exists within our society and recognising how cultural factors can influence behaviour. By being culturally responsive, behaviour analysts can provide more effective and meaningful interventions that consider the individual's cultural context. Practitioners need to be aware that Behaviour Analysis does not occur in a vacuum. While clinicians often are proponents of individualised care, they tend to forget that individuals learning histories include factors identified in the ADDRESSING Model, a framework created by Pamela Hays, a clinical psychologist, in the late 1990s.
The ADDRESSING Model
The ADDRESSING model is a framework that provides a comprehensive understanding of individual differences and identities, particularly within the context of cultural responsiveness. It acknowledges that an individual's learning history, shaped by cultural and social experiences, dramatically influences their behaviours, preferences, and world perceptions. The model helps behaviour analysts assess and consider these learning histories when providing ABA therapy.
The ADDRESSING model stands for:
- A - Age and generational influences
- D - Developmental and acquired disabilities
- D - Disability status
- R - Religion and spirituality
- E - Ethnic and racial identity
- S - Socioeconomic status
- S - Sexual orientation
- I - Indigenous heritage
- N - National origin
- G - Gender
Each component of the model represents essential aspects of an individual's identity and learning history. By understanding these factors, behaviour analysts can gain insights into the cultural context in which behaviours have developed and been reinforced or discouraged. This understanding is crucial for developing effective intervention strategies and promoting positive behavioural changes.
For example, considering an individual's ethnic and racial identity (E) allows behaviour analysts to recognise how cultural norms, beliefs, and experiences may have shaped their behaviours. By understanding an individual's ethnic and racial background, analysts can identify potential cultural values, preferences, or challenges that may impact the therapy process. This knowledge can guide the selection of appropriate reinforcement strategies, communication styles, or therapeutic activities that are culturally congruent and relevant to the individual's learning history.
Similarly, other components of the model, such as age and generational influences (A) or socioeconomic status (S), help behaviour analysts understand the contextual factors that shape an individual's behaviours and learning experiences. For instance, an individual from a lower socioeconomic background may have different access to resources or opportunities than someone from a higher socioeconomic status. Recognising these differences allows behaviour analysts to tailor interventions to individual needs and environmental constraints.
In summary, the ADDRESSING model acknowledges that an individual's learning history is rooted in their cultural and social identities. By considering its components, behaviour analysts can create culturally responsive interventions catering to their unique experiences, improving the effectiveness of ABA therapy.
One key aspect of cultural responsiveness in behaviour analysis is cultural humility. Cultural humility requires practitioners to approach their work with an open mind and a willingness to learn from others. It involves recognising that we all have biases and limitations in our understanding of different cultures and must continually strive to expand our knowledge and awareness. By practising cultural humility, clinicians can create a safe and inclusive environment where clients feel comfortable sharing their experiences and perspectives (Wright, 2019)
Why is Cultural Responsiveness Important?
Cultural responsiveness is crucial in behaviour analysis, as culture significantly impacts various behaviours, such as rapport building, treatment preferences, communication, and healthcare quality. The increasing diversity in the US highlights the need for professionals in applied behaviour analysis (ABA) to incorporate culturally responsive practices. The Ethics Code (BACB, 2022) supports addressing diversity in behaviour analytic practice. It is essential for all individuals, including minoritised groups, to engage in practices that foster cultural responsiveness. Cultural responsiveness should not be an afterthought, but a fundamental aspect of behaviour analytic research and practice (Beaulieu & Jimenez-Gomez, 2022)
Better Understanding of the Individual Within Their Cultural Context
Cultural responsiveness is important in behaviour analysis for several reasons. Firstly, it allows for a better understanding of the individual's behaviour within their cultural context. Every culture has its own set of norms, values, and beliefs, which can significantly impact how individuals behave and respond to interventions. By being culturally responsive, behaviour analysts can consider these factors when designing interventions, leading to more effective outcomes.
Builds Trust and Rapport Between Clinician and Family
Secondly, cultural responsiveness promotes a sense of trust and rapport between the clinician and the learner. When learners and their families feel that their culture and experiences are respected and understood, they are more likely to engage in the intervention process and be open to suggestions for behaviour change. This can lead to better collaboration and cooperation between the BCBA and the family, ultimately enhancing the effectiveness of the intervention.
Reduces Inequities Pre-Existing in ABA and Breaks Down Barriers
Furthermore, cultural responsiveness helps to reduce disparities in access to and outcomes of behaviour analysis services. Different cultural groups may face unique barriers to accessing services or may have different expectations and preferences for treatment. By being culturally responsive, clinicians can adapt their approaches to meet the specific needs of different cultural groups, ensuring that everyone has equal access to high-quality care.
Lastly, cultural responsiveness is essential for ethical practice in behaviour analysis. The BACB's Ethics Code (2022) now includes responsiveness in two of the ethical codes that behaviour analysts must adhere to in 1.04 and 4.07 - (This means that behaviour analysts have a professional responsibility to be knowledgeable and respectful of cultural diversity. Furthermore, in 2026 the BACB will introduce a DEI Category where BCBAs and BCaBAs will be required to earn continuing education credits in this sub-category to maintain certification. By incorporating cultural responsiveness into their practice, behaviour analysts can uphold these ethical standards and provide the best possible care for their learners.
In conclusion, cultural responsiveness is of utmost importance in behaviour analysis. By being culturally responsive and practising cultural humility, behaviour analysts can better understand the unique cultural contexts of their learners and provide more effective interventions. Cultural responsiveness promotes trust and collaboration between the behaviour analyst and the client, reduces disparities in access to care, and upholds ethical standards in the field. As professionals in behaviour analysis, we are responsible for recognising and valuing the diversity within our society and ensuring that our interventions are culturally responsive.
- BACB. (2022). Ethics code for behavior analysts. https://www.bacb.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/Ethics-Code-for-Behavior-Analysts-230119-a.pdf
- Beaulieu, L., & Jimenez‐Gomez, C. (2022). Cultural responsiveness in applied behavior analysis: Self‐assessment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 55(2), 337–356. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.907
- Fong, E. H., Catagnus, R. M., Brodhead, M. T., Quigley, S., & Field, S. (2016). Developing the cultural awareness skills of behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9(1), 84–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-016-0111-6
- Gatzunis, K. S., Edwards, K. Y., Rodriguez Diaz, A., Conners, B. M., & Weiss, M. J. (2022). Cultural responsiveness framework in BCBA® supervision. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 15(4), 1373–1382. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-022-00688-7
- Hays, P. A. (2022). Addressing Cultural Complexities in Counseling and Clinical Practice: An Intersectional Approach (4th Ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000277-000
- Jimenez‐Gomez, C., & Beaulieu, L. (2022). Cultural responsiveness in applied behavior analysis: Research and practice. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 55(3), 650–673. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.920
- Miller, K. L., Re Cruz, A., & Ala’i-Rosales, S. (2019). Inherent tensions and possibilities: Behavior analysis and cultural responsiveness. Behavior and Social Issues, 28(1), 16–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42822-019-00010-1
- Wright, P. I. (2019). Cultural humility in the practice of Applied Behavior Analysis. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 12(4), 805–809. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-019-00343-8